# SOLVED:Statistics

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A SIPOC map is The fact that processes tend to be dynamic, rather than static, is a key principle of statistical thinking. Which of the following is a natural consequence of this fact? Process complexity is important because complex processes Process measurements are: Suppose the Process Improvement Framework were used to attack a problem where the process in question was inherently unstable. Which of the following would be a likely result of this effort? The histogram below showing ages of credit card holders displays what type of distribution? A process is said to be capable if A main purpose of a control chart is to The histogram has which of the following limitations In evaluating data on our process outputs, four characteristics we might investigate are: central tendency, variation, shape of distribution, and stability. Which of the following tools would be most helpful to determine stability of the process? George Box tells us “all models are wrong but some are useful”. By this comment he means Models based on subject matter fundamentals (theory) are generally better than statistical models for Which of the following is NOT a reason for adjusted R-Square being low? Results of regression analysis are often abused in the following ways Process models are used to: What should one consider when analyzing the results of an experiment? Identify the assumption that is NOT made when conducting an experiment This technique is used to eliminate the effects of nuisance factors (e.g., machines, day of week, and season of year) from an experiment The following table shows data on the effect of Machine Pressure on product hardness.   What statistical test should be used to test the effect of pressure on average hardness?
100MPa 200MPa 6.2 11.1 7.3 10.3 8.2 13 8.3 14.3 7.5 11.2 6.5 14.7 9.6 10 9 9.4 Which of the following purposes are served by replicating an experiment? 1. Provide a means for estimating the experimental error 2. Increase the number of treatment effects included in the experiment 3. Improve the precision of estimates of treatments effects We ran a taste-test to see which soft drink employees in our company prefer. We had 100 employees, selected as randomly as possible, taste test two brands and determine which they preferred. Which of the following would be a reasonable statistical analysis to determine if there is a clear preference among our employees? We conducted a t test to compare the average cycle time to approve two different types of loans, auto and personal. The p-value for the t test was -.03, where the hypotheses were Which of the following would be plausible values for the endpoints of a 95% confidence interval for (Auto
– Per.)? Based on a regression model, I have developed a 95% prediction interval for the time it will take me to run a mile under specific conditions (weather, what I have eaten & drank, running shoes used, and so on). This interval goes from 5.2 minutes to 6.1 minutes. Which of the following could be an accurate description of this interval? For which of the following scenarios am I most likely to utilize a Chi-squared test? We are conducting a poll for the mayoral election of a medium sized city, and found with one week before the election that the Democrat candidate is leading with 52% planning to vote for her, 46% planning to vote for the Republican, with 2% not sure. The 95% confidence interval for proportion planning to vote for the Democrat is +/- 3%. Based on this information, and making reasonable assumptions, which of the following statements is correct? Improvement is needed for an organization to survive because: What is tool that can be used to detect the structure variation? Service and non-manufacturing processes Processes are important because Suppose a DMAIC Framework were used to attack a problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of the following would be a likely result of this effort? What does it mean if capability index Cp is less than 1? If my histogram appears bimodal, what tool might help me evaluate why? A sample of 50 invoices are inspected each shift for errors, and classified as either “good”, i.e., without error, or “bad”, having some problem. If we plot our bad invoices each shift on a control chart, which chart should we use? A process is said to be capable if A comparison between the Cp and Cpk for a process would find which of the following to be true? Which of the following is NOT a measure of model adequacy? Process models are used to Models based on subject matter fundamentals (theory) are generally better than statistical models for: Tips for building useful models include: George Box tells us “all models are wrong but some are useful”. By this comment he means: A 32 experiment means that we are experimenting with This technique is used to eliminate the effects of nuisance factors (e.g., machines, day of week, and season of year) from an experiment. An aspect of good experimental strategy is to study the effects of the variables
(Xs) over a wide range. This strategy increases the chances that effects will be found because: In every experiment there is experimental error.  Which of the following statements is true? We conducted a t test to compare the average cycle time to approve two different types of loans, auto and personal. The p-value for the t test was -.03, where the hypotheses were:

H0: Auto  –  Per. =  0
H0: Auto  –  Per.  0

Which of the following would be plausible values for the endpoints of a 95% confidence interval for (Auto We are conducting a poll for the mayoral election of a medium sized city, and found with one week before the election that the Democrat candidate is leading with 52% planning to vote for her, 46% planning to vote for the Republican, with 2% not sure. The 95% confidence interval for proportion planning to vote for the Democrat is +/- 3%. Based on this information, and making reasonable assumptions, which of the following statements is correct? What would happen (other things equal) to a confidence interval if you calculated a 99 percent confidence interval rather than a 95 percent confidence interval? Which of the following could be considered a prediction interval? I have calculated an interval to document the uncertainty in my estimate of the long-term standard deviation I will experience in time to pay invoices in my business going forward. Baaed on this information, this should be considered what type of interval? Improvement is needed for an organization to survive because: Understanding variation is important because variation: Which of the following are principles of Statistical Thinking? The standard deviation is: Process improvement activities typically include In Figure 2.11, Coach Hau presented data showing where goals were scored on crosses. This produced unexpected results, in terms of where the goals came from, and helped his team determine an effective strategy on free kicks. This is an example of what principle of statistical thinking? Box, Hunter, and Hunter are quoted in this chapter as stating: “Data have no meaning in themselves; they are meaningful only in relation to a conceptual model of the phenomenon studied.” This critical point is related to which of the following principles of statistical thinking? The fact that processes tend to be dynamic, rather than static, is a key principle of statistical thinking. Which of the following is a natural consequence of this fact? Figure 2.16 shows a chart of the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1990 through 2011. This plot reveals some obvious change points, such as the 2008 financial collapse, and some unexplainable short-term variation. Assuming that these are the only sources of variation in this plot, what source of variation is NOT visible in the plot? In the advertising case study, the unexpected “V” shaped pattern in the plot of advertising dollars versus sales indicated what? Figure 2.15 displays a model of the statistics discipline, showing the relationship between statistical thinking, statistical engineering, and statistical methods and tools. Which of the following is a principle illustrated by this model? What is tool that can be used to detect the structure variation? Service and non-manufacturing processes: The primary goal of process mapping is to: Improving the quality of process measurements is: Refer to Figure 3.21 and choose the correct statement for the measurements We measure, monitor and improve process cycle time because: Processes are important because: Process complexity is important because complex processes: Use of subject matter knowledge is a key aspect of the Statistical Thinking Strategy discussed in Chapter 2. For which of the following case studies in Chapter 4 was this principle NOT clearly applied? The Problem Solving Framework begins with a “Document the Problem” phase. The Process Improvement Framework does not begin this way, but rather begins with an “Understand the Process phase.” Which of the following are valid reasons for this difference? We learned in Chapter 2 that most processes are dynamic in nature, and therefore the time dimension is often a critical consideration in process improvement. For which of the case studies in Chapter 4 was plotting data over time NOT critical to success? Suppose the Problem Solving Framework were used to attack a problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of the following would be a likely result of this effort? Suppose a DMAIC Framework were used to attack a problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of the following would be a likely result of this effort? Which of the following are accurate statements about the relationship between the Process Improvement Framework (PIF) and the Problem Solving Framework (PSF)?

1. A manufacturing process has been experiencing problems.  The operators charting the process data have identified the cause to be due to an unanticipated change in incoming raw materials.  This problem should be considered:
2. It is, unfortunately, common in business for managers to demand an explanation for variation that is, based on statistics, typical and expected variation, i.e., common cause variation. Alternatively, there may be obvious special causes in the data that may be shrugged off as “typical business fluctuations”. Which of the following statements about interpretation of variation are true?
3. The Statistical Thinking Strategy illustrated in Figure 2.14 provides a graphic of the overall approach to driving improvement through statistical thinking. Which of the following is a key principle illustrated in this specific graph?
4. Lean manufacturing, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management are some of the new systems for managing and improving an organization. What is a common theme running through these approaches?
5. The principal drivers of the rapid change in the global economy are:
6. A SIPOC map is:
7. Which type of variation was critical to resolving the realized revenue case study?
8. If you are thinking creatively about how to take existing tools and link and sequence them to develop a novel approach to solve important problems, this would be an example of:
9. The frameworks discussed in Chapter 4 could be considered more specific examples of:
10. Sub-optimization occurs when:
11. The SIPOC model for a business helps everyone in the company see the business from an overall perspective by:
I.          Keeping a focus on customer needs
II.         Identifying inputs and outputs for each step of the process
III.       Displaying cross-function activities in simple terms
IV.       Helping maintain the big business picture
12. Process measurements are:
13. Viewing a business as a system is important because:
14. The Hidden Factory is: