SOLVED: Assignment #3 – Foundations of Computer Technology




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 Computer Hardware


  1. The computer case is not just a box for hardware components. It helps to…

…regulate t_____________ inside (control the environment) which can damage hardware

…c___________________ with peripheral devices (hardware outside the case) such as the m____________, m____________, k_______________, and other computers
…distribute e______________ (power) to hardware components inside the case

…protect delicate hardware from ______________ and ______________ [not in notes]

slits and holes
drive bays
power supply and cables
  • The motherboard or s________ board contains the p___________ (A) that acts as the ‘brains’ of the computer, R______ chips (B) where software is copied so it can be worked on, p________ (C) which connect the board to peripheral hardware, connections to the p_______ s_________ (D) that distributes small and precise amounts of electricity to hardware components,
    slots for a___________ cards (E) that help the computer to enhance communications, video, and audio functions, junctions like the n______ b________ (F) that connect components that operate at different speeds, data and power connections to s___________ devices (G), and the R______ chip (H) that contains instructions the computer uses when it is first turned on.
  1. Hardware is the part of the computer that you can t_____________. Computers range in size from supercomputers to card-sized boards, but have similar hardware components.


  1. Today’s computers depend on electricity to move motors that spin disks in some types of storage devices, but also to create the “__s and __s” on transistors that represent numbers, language symbols, sounds, colors, and images.
  2. Storage devices contain s___________ programs or user-created work. Software the processor is working on is copied to R______ chips and stored on tr______________, but this type of storage device is temporary because anything in it is e________ when electrical power is removed (when the computer shuts down).


  1. H______ d________ are storage devices that store the 1s and 0s in software via m____________ particles on hard disks inside metal cases that spin at high speeds to be able to access information anywhere on the disk quickly (the same concept of ‘random access’ as in RAM chips). USB or flash drives do not have moving parts so are called s________ s_________ hardware. Portable smart devices use the same type of storage.


  1. Optical drives are storage devices that store 1s and 0s via use of a l_____ b______ that either create very small p______ (like a pothole in a street) or changes the color of a d_____ on writeable CDs/DVDs.


  1. Storage devices can also act as input devices for the computer. The user, however, needs other hardware to interact with software. The most common older input devices are the k_______________ which has keys that represent numbers, language symbols, and simple commands, the hand-operated m_________ which both act as p_________ devices to indicate which g __________ u______ i__________ icon the user wants to activate. More recent input devices include a person’s f__________ that also acts as a pointing device and a m_______________ which picks up voice commands or information.


Computer Software and Programming


  1. Software is the part of the computer system that we cannot see. Software is the i_____________ that computer programmers write for the computer that help you perform tasks. Without software, all of the computer’s functions would have to be performed with levers, gears, cams and motors. The power of a computer is that it uses our brains as a tool to interpret abstract things like n________, language s_________, c_______, s_________ we hear, and i________ we see, and create abstract physical objects like b_________ and m_______ b_______ with which we interact with software functions via a mouse, our fingers, other pointing devices, our voice, or a keyboard.



  1. The two main types of software are o_____________ s___________ and a_______________ (apps for short) that help us perform specific tasks (such as writing this assignment).


  1. Operating system software is required to operate a computer because it works with the computer’s h___________ and a_____________ software to interpret what it means when you move your mouse, click its buttons on some place on the monitor screen, press a key on a keyboard, or speak into a microphone.


  1. Software stores every piece of information or command, every number, language symbol, sound, or image, as a pattern of 1s and 0s. For example, the number 203 is stored as 011001011 and the @ symbol is stored as 001000000 (decimal 64). Colors are stored as a combination of three colors, r_____, g________,              and b_____, with intensities of 0-255. Sounds are stored as samples of their f_______________ and a_____________ (intensities). Images are stored as  a grid of p________, each with its own color.



Computer Programming


All software is created by people who write in languages the computer can understand called programming languages. Programs are instructions to the computer.

  1. Over 200 years ago, Jacquard programmed a cloth loom with p________ c_______. Baggage created a calculating machine which Ada Lovelace wrote instructions for, so she is considered the          first p____________. Hollerith helped process the U.S. c________                in 1890 by using punched cards to represent each person.


int main() {
cout << “Hello!”;
  • The first electrical computers like the ENIAC and Colossus in the 1940s were programmed by flipping s__________ to represent 1s and 0s. A more readable second generation language called a___________ language made programming easier but still required a lot of knowledge about how processors worked. Third generation languages like C++ and others we use
    today look more like human language.



Computer Networking


  1. Each type of computer in 1960s had its own o__________ s_________ software that was n____ designed to connect to other computers. However, some people dreamed of being able to share information via computer.
  2. People like Vint Cerf at DARPA (U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) developed a p_________-switching scheme that broke messages into pieces that were handled the same way by different types of computers. This was different from the way telephone calls, which operated by c__________-switching in which each phone call got a dedicated line for transmission.
  3. The ARPAnet that would become the Internet of today was created in 1969 using packet-switching technology. By 1981, ARPANet had 213 hosts and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) took over the network in 1985 as the NSFNet. By 1995, when the W______ W_____ W____ became popular and anyone who could pay for it was on the Internet, the NSF turned over the Internet to commercial companies like we have today.


  1. Several business agreements and types of technology helped the Internet to grow from 4 computers in 1969 to billions in 2016:
    — computer makers had to agree to use a c_________ l___________ to communicate how computers would handle 1s and 0s
    — small p___________ computers (PCs) were invented so people in business and in schools could have one on their desk; later, these computers became even smaller, portable, and more powerful, such as today’s la__________ and sm_____ devices we carry around
    — people needed reasons to use the Internet, such as the W____ and e______ and businesses reaching customers
    — businesses like I___________ S__________ P__________ (ISPs) helped us to connect to the Internet and created ways to use Internet applications such as Web b____________ to connect to Web pages and display them and s___________ engines to find Web pages
    — s_________ m__________ websites helped us to connect with each other


  1. Computer networks are classified by size because of the technologies needed to connect different sized computers. Fill in the table below to indicate the technologies used to connect networks of increasing size:


Network classification Network size Wired/conducted technology Wireless technology
p_________ area network (PAN) arm’s reach U______ / F__________ B________________
l_________ area network (LAN) room to campus E_____________ W___________
m_____________ area network (MAN) city-sized f______ o_______ cable
or c____________ cable
or gigabit Ethernet
or telephone system
or microwave towers
w_______ area
network (WAN)
world sized t____________ system
or f_________ o_______
with undersea cables
terrestrial m____________
or s_______________
network (IPN)
solar system none radio or light waves



  1. Computer networks use only a few types of m__________ to carry signals:


c_________ wire cables        f_______ o_______ cable       s_______







  1. Computers called s___________ provide services such as the Web, email, chat, and file sharing to customers.


  1. Web servers store Web pages. Customers can request a copy of the Web page using the address to the page on their Web browser (Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, Opera). An address like contains the following parts:
  • http – communications p__________ for transmitting/receiving Web pages
  • – d__________ n________ (edu designates an educational institution)
  • studentlife – a f_______ or d___________ where Student Life Web pages are stored
  • organization.html – the n________ of the Web page you are viewing